The immediate aftermath of the Second World War had far-reaching repercussions for the international community. Many millions of lives had been lost as a result of the war. The war can be identified to varying degrees as the catalyst for many continental, national and local phenomena, such as the redrawing of European borders, the birth click the United Kingdom 's welfare statethe communist takeover of China effects of world war 2 essays Eastern Europethe creation of Israeland the divisions of Germany and Korea.
Technologies, such as nuclear fissionthe computer and effects of world war 2 essays jet enginealso appeared during this period. For the first time in modern history, geopolitical power shifted away from western and central Europe.
That multipolar world was replaced by a bipolar one dominated by the two most powerful victors, the United States and Soviet Unionwhich would go on to be labeled the superpowers.
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As a result of the new borders essas by the victorious nations, large populations suddenly found themselves in hostile territory. The main beneficiary of these border revisions was the Soviet Unionwhich expanded its borders at the expense of Germany, Finland, Poland and Romania. The Soviet Union also acquired the three independent states of EstoniaLatvia and Lithuaniawhich had declared their neutrality effects of world war 2 etfects the outbreak of World War II.
The Baltic states were occupied and annexed early in the war in agreement with the Nazis via the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pactthen re-conquered in A minor temporary beneficiary was France, which in annexed the German state of Saar as a nominally independent protectorate under French economic control. Poland was link for its losses to the Soviet Union by receiving most of Germany east of the Oder-Neisse lineincluding the industrial regions of Silesia.
In total Germany lost roughly a quarter of her territory. A number of Germans were expelled most from the ceded Article source territories and from the Effets. Among them a number died, and historians debate to this day the exact death rate. The repatriation, pursuant to the terms of the Yalta Conferenceof two million Russian soldiers who had come under the control of advancing American and British forces, resulted for the most part esssays their deaths.
The much larger reparations from occupied Germany to Russia were to be paid not by goods or money but by the transfer of capital goods, i. A separate reparation was 3, German former prisoners of war, as well as a number of civilians, that were forced to labour in Russia. Some did not get to return until well into the s see also Effects effects of world war 2 essays world effects of world war 2 essays 2 essays labor of Germans in worlc Soviet Union.
Reparations to the Effects of world war 2 essays victors consisted essayys of free coal deliveries as well as of machinery and dismantled factories of which the majority went to France, with some going to Britain.
S settled for appropriating German patents as well as all German company assets effefts the U. The "intellectual reparations", such as patents and blueprints, taken by the U.
Western Allied dismantling of industry in the Saar area and Ruhr area worls virtually completed by The initial proposed plans of the United States were harsh.
The Morgenthau Plan of called for stripping Germany of the industrial resources required for war. The main industrial areas of the Ruhr and Silesia were to worls removed from Germany, as were Germany's main sources of coal and iron, namely Saar and the German speaking parts of Alsace-Lorrainewhich were to be once again under French occupation. While the Morgenthau Plan was never implemented in its original form, it did end up greatly influencing events.
Most notable was this influence seen through its toned-down offshoots. In occupied Germany the Morgenthau plan lived on in the U. The first industrial plan for Germany, signed inrequired the destruction of 1, manufacturing plants. Byafter the virtual completion of the by the then much watered-out "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from manufacturing plants in the west and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6, tons.
These policies were however to some degree counteracted by the fssays governor of the U. Article source slowed down the rate factories were being destroyed and increased the food rations to calories a day half the normal UK rations.
The problems brought on by these types of effects of world war 2 essays became apparent to many after a year of occupation. Germany had long been the industrial giant of Europe, and its poverty held back the general European recovery. The continued scarcity in Germany also led to considerable expenses for the occupying effectz, which were obligated to try and make up effects of world war 2 essays most important shortfalls.
The Western powers worst fear by now was that the poverty and hunger effects of world war 2 essays drive the Germans to Communism. General Lucius Clay stated "There is no choice between being a communist on 1, calories a essays ethics and a believer in democracy on a thousand".
After lobbying by the Joint Chiefs of Staffand Generals Clay and Marshallthe Truman administration finally realized that economic recovery in Europe could not go forward without the reconstruction of the German industrial learn more here on which it had previously had been dependent. Truman rescinded on "national security grounds"  the punitive JCSwhich had directed the U. In view of the continued poverty and famine in Europe, and with the onset of the Cold War that made it important to bring as much of Germany as possible into the western camp, it became apparent that a change of policy was required.
The most notable example of this change was a plan established by U. Congress to allocate billions of dollars for the erfects of Europe. Also as part of the effort to rebuild global capitalism and spur post-war reconstruction, the Bretton Woods system was put into effect after the war. For Western Germany the psychological impact of the Marshall Plan was large. In monetary terms, Germany received only half of what Britain received; in addition, Germany was eventually forced to repay the majority of the money.
But, it meant that the occupation policy was officially changed and thus the West German people finally could start rebuilding their new nation.
The East German population were not so lucky, and their attempt to revolt against the Russians a few years later was quickly put down. In the Netherlands the Bakker-Schut Plan to demand a huge monetary compensation and even to annex a part of Germany effects of world war 2 essays would have doubled the country's size were dropped. But many Germans living in the Netherlands were effects of world war 2 essays 'hostile subjects' and put into a concentration camp in an operation called Effects of world war 2 essays Tulip.
A total of 3, Germans were ultimately click to see more. The destruction of Europe and the destruction of a significant portion of the United Kingdom's cities via aerial bombing would also ruin the reputation of the imperial nations in the eyes of their colonies.
Coupled with the enormous expense incurred in the war, an effects of world war 2 essays was perceived to be an unnecessarily expensive possession. Thus this would provoke the rapid decolonization process that would see the empires of the United Kingdom, France and others swept away.
Effects of world war 2 essays tendencies helped India and Pakistan become independent from the British Empire in August Soon Malaysia and other South East Asian colonies also became independent. The Netherlands lost Indonesia and France lost Indochina. In just a few decades most Asian and African colonies were all independent.
The immense destruction wrought over the effects of world war 2 essays of the war caused a sharp decline in the power of the great powers of Europe.
This led to a period of wealth and prosperity for the U. While the homeland of the United States was untouched by the war, quite the opposite was true in the Soviet Union. At the height of the Axis advance inthe Wehrmacht got within 20 kilometers Although the Nazis were pushed back from Moscow by Soviet winter counter thrusts in earlythe Wehrmacht's Operation Blue in summer pushed German forces northeast of the Black Sea to Stalingrad and southeast of effects of world war 2 essays Black Sea to the approaches to Grozny at the foot the Caucasus Mountains.
For visualization purposes, it would be similar to a foreign effects of world war 2 essays occupying all of the US mainland from the Atlantic coast to the Effects of world war 2 essays Plains. During the initial German effects of world war 2 essays, Operation Barbarossathe use of scorched earth tactics by both sides left the western portion of the Soviet Union almost totally destroyed.
Agricultural land was burned, livestock exterminated, infrastructure dismantled or destroyed and entire towns flattened. All of this land would see more battles as salesman death essay of willy loman Red Army swept west effects of world war 2 essays Although the Soviets were able to salvage some heavy industry and ship it to safer areas around the Ural Mountainsmuch of the USSR's pre-war industry fell into the hands of the Germans.
The Soviet Union also suffered unprecedented casualties. From to the Red Army lost over 10 million killed and more than 18 million wounded. Civilian losses were also immense, most estimates range from 14 to 17 million civilians killed.
Most civilians in the occupied lands in the western USSR were either shot or simply left to starve or freeze to death by the Germans. Additionally, the majority of Holocaust victims, as well as the perpetration of the Holocaust itself, were from the Eastern Front. The total deaths resulting from the war amounted effects of world war 2 essays roughly fourteen percent of the USSR's and sixteen percent of Poland 's total pre-war population.
By comparison, the United States lost about one-third of one percent of its total pre-war population. Because of the immense loss of life and the destruction of land and industrial capacity, the USSR was at an economic and because of the American use of atomic weapons on Japan strategic disadvantage relative to the United States.
The USSR was, however, in a better economic and strategic position than any other continental European power. By the end of the war in the Red Army was very large, battle-tested and occupied all of Eastern and Central Europe as well as what was to become East Germany. Given the tremendous suffering of the Soviet people during the war, it is understandable that Soviet leadership would want a "buffer zone" of friendly governments between Russia and Western European nations.
Effects of world war 2 essays purpose was to pool the steel and effects of world war 2 essays resources of the member states, to support the economies of the participating economies. As a side effect, the ECSC helped diffuse tensions between countries which had recently been enemies in the war.
In time this economic merger grew, adding members and broadening in scope, to become the European Economic Communityand later the European Effects of world war 2 essays. Because the League of Nations had failed to actively prevent the war, in a new international alliance was considered and then created, the United Nations UN.
The UN also was responsible for the initial creation of the modern state of Israel inin part as a response to the Holocaust. Unlike its predecessor, the United Nations has taken a more active role in the world, such as fighting diseases and providing humanitarian aid to nations in distress. The UN also served as the diplomatic front line during the Cold War. The biggest advantage the United Nations has over the League of Nations is the presence of world superpowers such as the United States and Russia, for the League had little actual international power due to the absence of these nations.
The now-defunct Berlin Walla symbol of the Cold War. The end of World War II is seen by many as marking the end of the United Kingdom 's position as a global superpower and the catalyst for the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as the dominant powers in the world.
Friction had been building up between the two before the end of the war and with the collapse of Nazi Germany relations spiraled downward. In the areas occupied by Western Allied effects of world war 2 essays, pre-war governments were re-established or new democratic governments were created; in the areas occupied by Soviet troops, including the territories of former Allies such as Poland, communist states were created.
These became satellites of the Soviet Union. Germany was partitioned into four zones of occupation, with the American, British and French zones grouped as West Germany and the Soviet zone as East Germany. Austria effects of world war 2 essays once again separated from Germany and it, too, was divided into four zones of occupation, which eventually reunited and became the republic of Austria.
Korea was divided in half along the 38th parallel. The partitions were initially informal, but as the essay othello deceit between the victors deteriorated, the military lines of demarcation became the de facto country boundaries. The Cold War had begun, and soon two blocs would emerge: The Berlin Wall fell on 9 November The effects of world war 2 essays research and development involved in the Manhattan Project in order to quickly achieve a working nuclear weapon design greatly impacted the scientific community, among other things creating a effects of world war 2 essays of national laboratories in the United States.