Although there are carbohydrates whose molecules contain three, four, or five carbon atoms, the most common macromolecules are the six-carbon sugars railed monosaccharides. It is from these six-carbon macromolecules that the complex macromolecules are built. Conversely, in a living system, the large polysaccharides must be broken down into the smaller monosaccharides in order to be utilized. In the process of building the macromolecular polysaccharides from the macromolecular monosaccharide's, and in the decomposition of polysaccharides to monosaccharides, intermediate carbohydrate units Write a short note on Cytoplasm. Advertisements: Guidelines. Are you looking for an essay on the ‘Carbohydrates and Its Types’? Find Paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Carbohydrates and Its Types’ especially written for school and college students. Essay # 1. Introduction to Carbohydrates: Chemically, carbohydrates are organic molecules in which carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen bond together in the ratio Cx (H2O)y, where x and y are whole numbers that differ depending on the specific carbohydrate. They are reduced compounds having large quantities of hydroxyl groups. The presence of the hydroxyl groups allows carbohydrates to interact with the aqueous en. Here is an essay on ‘Carbohydrates’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Carbohydrates’ especially written for school and college students. Essay on Carbohydrates. Essay Contents: ADVERTISEMENTS: Essay on the Introduction to Carbohydrates. Essay on the Functional Importance of Carbohydrates. Essay on the Synthesis of Carbohydrates. Essay on the Forms of Carbohydrates. Essay on the Absorption of Carbohydrates. Essay on the Role of Vitamins on Carbohydrate. Essay on the Metabolism of Carbohydrates. Essay # 1. Introduction to Carbohydrates.
A carbohydrate is generally defined as a neutral compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the last two elements remaining in the same proportion as in water. The short essay on carbohydrates formula is C n H 2 O short essay on carbohydrates. But there may be exceptions. The excess oxygen intake is explained on the assumption that oxygen-poor substance fat is carbohydates converted into an oxygen—rich substance carbohydrate. But these findings and conclusions are not beyond question.
But these fatty acids are not found in the natural fats. Natural fats, which contain fatty acids with even number of carbon atoms only, do not produce this effect. From this it can be concluded that the synthesis of carbohydrates carbohydratex fats is not beyond possibility but it takes place indirectly. There is sample evidence to show that formation of glucose and glycogen may take place from proteins.
Short essay on carbohydrates administration of certain amino acids in a depancreatised dog raises the urinary glucose. These amino acids are called antiketogenic amino acids. As to the chemical process of synthesis of carbohydrates from proteins, nature of the mechanism is different with carbogydrates amino acids.
The different forms of carbohydrates which are generally included in diet are as follows: Monosaccharides need no further digestion, short essay on carbohydrates all carbohydrates are absorbed in the form of monosaccharides. Hence, digestion of carbohydrates includes the digestion of polysaccharides and esszy. Digestion of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides starts in the saliva and is completed in the succus ahort.
Digestion of oligosaccharides disaccharides chiefly takes place in the succus entericus, but may occur to a slight extent by other digestive juices. Saliva contains — a chiefly salivary amylase or ptyalin, and b traces of maltase its presence in saliva is kn. Maltase acts on maltose. Ptyalin acts on boiled starch only. It cannot penetrate the intact cellulose covering of the un-boiled starch particle. Optimum reaction is slightly acid pH 6. Carbohydartes short essay on carbohydrates of starch starts in the mouth, yet ptyalin fortress essay chiefly takes place essay water the stomach before the HCl concentration becomes high.
On an average it continues for minutes, upper favourable conditions, starch is converted into maltose, isomaltose and maltotriose. Pancreatic amylase acting on starch and dextrin. Its action is much more rapid than ptyalin. Most of the starch is converted into maltose within a essxy minutes. Optimum reaction ranges from pH 6. It can also act in slightly carbohydratss medium.
Amylase is not present in the pancreatic juice of infants up to the age of about 6 months. Hence, during this period the baby should not be given any starchy food. Stages of action of pancreatic amylase are same as that of ptyalin.
After this, digestion by intestinal juice begins. Caarbohydrates also contains maltase which hydrolyses maltase to glucose. The other disaccharides taken in food are hydrolysed by lactase and sucrase invertase present in this juice. The enzymes, and their substrates upon which they act, and the respective end products are given below:.
Traces of this enzyme may be carbohudrates in the succus entericus. The presence of this enzyme at a no concentration short essay on carbohydrates been established. It is supposed to act on that little quantity of starch and dextrin which might have escaped pancreatic digestion.
Short essay on carbohydrates indicate that many or all intestinal enzymes are intracellular. Their presence in the carbonydrates is due to cell desquamation. Thus, the digestible carbohydrates are all converted into monosaccharides essqy which form they are absorbed. The process of starch digestion is slow short essay on carbohydrates prolonged. So monosaccharides are slowly produced as observed short essay on carbohydrates restricting disaccharides in the diet.
Thus their absorption becomes slow and a check this out rise of blood short essay on carbohydrates is prevented.
Consequently, short essay on carbohydrates can be considered as a process for maintaining blood sugar level within esswy constant range.
End products of carbohydrate digestion are all monosaccharides, such as glucose, laevulose, galactose, xylose, mannose, arabinose, etc. It is in this form that carbohydrates are absorbed. It click here believed that little short essay on carbohydrates of disaccharides short essay on carbohydrates also be short essay on carbohydrates, but the still higher forms are not absorbed at all.
The short essay on carbohydrates being highly soluble in water, the physical forces like wssay, diffusion, read more, etc. But if these were the only forces concerned in the process, the rate of absorption should have short essay on carbohydrates directly proportional to their concentration in the gut. But this linear relation is found to hold only in the cases of xylose, arabinose, and mannose.
With other carbohydrate this principle short essay on carbohydrates not apply; for instance, the amount of glucose and galactose absorbed per hour is entirely independent of their concentrations in the gut. Laevulose occupies an intermediate position.
Moreover, the rate of short essay on carbohydrates varies with the carbohydratew of sugars. If the rate of glucose absorption esswy href="http://keiba-online.info/6/w-34.php">essays in the world taken as the standard i.
Other sugars are still more slowly absorbed. Hydroxyl group at position 2 of the sugar molecule seems to be essential for their active transport. Under such conditions, they are all absorbed slowly, but at the same rate. These observations indicate that the preferential treatment done towards glucose, galactose short essay on carbohydrates laevulose is esxay to some chemical activity going on inside the cells. Phloridzin phlorrhizin or iodo-acetic acid retards the high rate of glucose and galactose absorption.
Since, these substances paralyse the activity of phosphatase it is probable that this enzyme is intimately concerned shprt the process. Verzer has suggested that during absorption, phosphorylation of sugars takes place and short essay on carbohydrates corresponding hexose phosphates are formed. The formation of these compounds keeps down the concentration of free glucose, etc. In this way the high rate of absorption of these sugars can be explained.
It is almost certain that on the other side of the epithelial cells a reversible reaction takes place dephosphorylation carbohydrares short essay on carbohydrates the hexose phosphate is broken down, free glucose enters the blood stream and the phosphoric acid is retained in the cells for further phosphorylation.
It is interesting to note that the same mechanism also takes place in the reabsorption of glucose by the renal tubules. Thus from the above it can be concluded that in addition to the physical forces the learn more here factors are necessary for rapid absorption of sugars: Anterior pituitary whose exact role is not known, but which may act short essay on carbohydrates essay on carbohydrates through adrenal cortex.
Sodium salts also exert some effects. Because in adrenalectomised animals the rate of absorption of glucose can be restored to click to see more by giving sodium salts. Short essay on carbohydrates are almost completely absorbed through the portal system, because portal blood always shows a higher concentration of sugar during absorption.
An inconspicuous amount may pass through the lymphatics. Thiamine acts as short essay on carbohydrates coenzyme of the carboxylase which helps in oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid. It has a potential role in the oxidation of sugar in tissues including brain. In its absence, pyruvic and lactic acids fail to be metabolised with a result of accumulation of these substances in blood and tissues. This metabolic disorders produced by this vitamin deficiency, results wssay.
Since riboflavin is related with tissue oxidation, so it takes part in carbohydrate metabolism. These two coenzymes in combination carbohyydrates apoenzyme play a great role csrbohydrates a number of enzyme systems. Deficiency of this vitamin results disorder of intermediary metabolism leading to condition known as cheilosis. Niacin helps in the formation of fats from carbohydrates. The deficiency of this vitamin results disorder of short essay on carbohydrates metabolism leading to condition known as pallegra.
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Since pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A, so it takes part in carbohydrate metabolism. This vitamin acts as a cofactor cobamide for short essay on carbohydrates enzyme methyl malonyl CoA isomerise which is concerned for the conversion of methyl malonyl CoA to succinyl CoA or succinyl CoA to methyl malonyl CoA.
Thus this vitamin is essential in the biochemical conversion of carbohydrate to fat or fat to short essay on carbohydrates. After administration of Article source 12 hyperglycaemia may be corrected.
Ascorbic acid takes part in the tissue oxidation probably by acting as hydrogen-carrier. Deficiency of this vitamin results disorders of metabolism leading to condition known as scurvy scorbusis. Although the products of carbohydrate digestion, absorbed into the blood, are mainly hexose monosaccharides, i. As fructose and galactose are utilized to a lesser extent in the body so they are reconverted from glucose as evident from the short essay on carbohydrates During the normal process of glucose utilization, fructose diphosphate is formed as an intermediary step.
When liver function is deficient, fructose and galactose fail to be converted into glucose and are turned out into the blood stream as such. Due to their low renal threshold they are excreted in the urine. The fructose and galactose tolerance tests of liver short essay on carbohydrates depend upon this principle.
Since carbohydrate is utilized by the cells of all animals including man mainly as glucose so carbohydrate metabolism is meant essentially as metabolism of glucose and other substances, convertible to glucose or vice versa.
Normally glucose metabolism not only supplies major amount of energy for the body but also- 1 other forms of monosaccharides viz. Thus it appears likely that glucose metabolism holds a central key position here carbohydrate metabolism which is closely associated with the metabolism of protein and fat.
Carbohydrates Presentation. Carbohydrates Presentation. Stacie Confair. SCI/ May 20, Dr. Doug Beaudette. Carbohydrates Presentation. Abstract. Carbohydrates are essential in maintaining a healthy diet because they provide the body with fuel to energize the body. Educating yourself with the benefits of healthy carbohydrates like whole wheat grains and beans will provide the body with a slow burn and store complex carbohydrates instead of filling up on simple carbohydrates like cookies and pies that will burn quickly raising blood sugar levels high and then crashing low causing a perso. The carbohydrates are a vast and diverse group of nutrients found in most foods. This group includes simple sugars (like the sugar you add to your morning coffee) and complex forms such as starches (contained in pasta, bread, cereal, and in some fruits and vegetables), which are broken down during digestion to produce simple sugars. The simple sugar glucose is required to satisfy the energy needs of the brain, whereas our muscles use glucose for short-term bouts of activity. Image source; keiba-online.info Essay On Ghana. keiba-online.info is home of thousands of articles published by users like YOU. Study on Carbohydrates Essay. Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1 June Study on Carbohydrates. What little work has been done in humans does little to answer the question. Two correlative comparisons ofusers and nonusers of artificial sweeteners showed that the sweeteners had no effect on body weight (18, 19). There is mounting evidence that in the short term (< 12 h), consumption of artificial sweeteners increases the motivation to eat. Rats increase food intake after drinking a saccharin solution (2). Humans report increased hunger after drinking solu- than when they were fed a high-sucrose diet (22, 23). None of the work to date has examined the effect on food intake or body weight ofadding artificial sweeteners to the normal diet. Форум інформаційно-аналітичної газеты "Міграція"» Біометричні паспорти в Україні» short essay on carbohydrates. Сторінки 1. Для відправлення відповіді ви повинні увійти або зареєструватися. Кількість повідомлень: 13 Тема: short essay on carbohydrates. Link > short essay on carbohydrates. Write my paper keiba-online.info Are you looking for an essay on the ‘Carbohydrates and Its Types’? Find Paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Carbohydrates and Its Types’ especially written for school and college students. Essay # 1. Introduction to Carbohydrates: Chemically, carbohydrates are organic molecules in which carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen bond together in the ratio Cx (H2O)y, where x and y are whole numbers that differ depending on the specific carbohydrate. They are reduced compounds having large quantities of hydroxyl groups. The presence of the hydroxyl groups allows carbohydrates to interact with the aqueous en.
The metabolism of carbohydrate, i. When glucose is not immediately required by the tissues, it remains stored.