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Comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational

essay on reduction of global warming Fitzgerald, Louise and Dopson, Sue () Comparative Case Study Designs: Their Utility and Development in Organisational Research. In: Buchanan, David and Alan, Bryman, (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Research Methods. SAGE, Los Angeles; London. ISBN Comparative Case Study Designs: their utility and development in organizational research. In: BuchananD, BrymanA, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Research Methods. As a design option, comparative case studies are suitable in the following circumstances: • When ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions are being posed about the processes or outcomes of an intervention. • When one or more interventions are being implemented across multiple contexts, and there is little or no opportunity to manipulate or control the way in which the interventions are being implemented. •.

Objectives To visit web page organisational technology adoption initiation, adoption decision, implementation by looking at the different types of innovation knowledge used during this process. Setting One primary care and 11 acute care organisations trusts across all health regions in England read more the context of infection prevention and control.

Participants and data analysis semistructured individual and group interviews with informants, involving clinical and non-clinical staff from all organisational levels and various professional groups.

Documentary evidence and field notes were also used. Main findings Those involved in the process variably accessed three types of innovation knowledge: Centralised national, government-led and local sources were used to obtain this knowledge.

Localised professional networks were preferred sources comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational all three types of knowledge.

Http://keiba-online.info/4/c-35.php backgrounds influenced an asymmetric attention to different types of innovation knowledge. This learning is comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational given the policy emphasis for health organisations to be innovation-ready.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Personal statement License, which permits use, distribution, and comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license.

Despite policy comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational and the development of a dedicated evidence dissemination infrastructure in the Ytility, why is technology adoption and implementation still a challenge? We need to understand better how the innovation process unfolds in organisations to build on what we know about individual behaviours. In particular, how the use of different types of knowledge about an innovation impacts its adoption and implementation.

In our study, centralised dissemination of evidence had minimal to moderate impact on organisational innovation adoption decisions. Practice-based, peer-mediated and local dissemination systems were perceived more relevant. This had negative implications for technology adoption and implementation. Professional backgrounds of those involved in the process influenced the types of innovation knowledge considered, which had implications for implementation.

The involvement of diverse professionals in decision-making improves the chances of successful implementation through a balanced consideration of the strength of scientific evidence and practical application.

The scale of the study, its real time and longitudinal nature provide a rich data set. Our study is theory driven and comprises multisite comparative case studies, which enhance the generalisability of findings beyond the context of the studied trusts. We explicitly studied cases of non-adoption and discontinuation after initial adoption to provide important learning often missing from innovation diffusion research.

On limitations, we designd not able to follow implementation past the end of August and therefore do not have information on routinised see more of the implemented technologies. The recent focus on quality and efficiency in healthcare by policy makers 1 highlights the need to harness new healthcare technologies and innovation to improve quality of patient care and health system productivity. Specifically, attention to the processes by which organisational utiligy access and use implementation and clinical evidence during decision-making is required.

In the last decade, edvelopment agencies have been created to encourage innovation uptake and promote the use of evidence-based innovations in the NHS 1 13 ; such predominately centralised evidence dissemination structures include the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence with the launch of the NHS Evidence online portal and the NHS Technology Adoption Centre, which works to speed-up the adoption of proven technologies by NHS organisations.

Despite these initiatives, comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational challenges of adopting novel technologies in the NHS persist.

Our study addresses this research gap and is well grounded in innovation change and diffusion theories. We empirically focus our investigation on just click for source prevention and control IPC as it represents a cross-cutting priority area in stury with application ocmparative primary and comparativve care, surgery and medicine alike.

While there has been increasing public and policy attention to address healthcare-associated infections HCAIs box 1the uptake and implementation of new technologies in IPC varies and remains slow.

HCAIs are a worldwide problem causing high mortality and morbidity with significant cost implications for health systems. In the UK, a range of infection prevention and control policies have been introduced to help tackle the problem, including legislation, performance targets and clinical guidelines. In England, the reporting of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections and Clostridium difficile click are mandatory, and there are national and local targets for reduction as well as national evidence-based guidelines.

Programme work streams span development to procurement and implementation processes and include: We undertook comparative case studies 27 across 12 NHS trusts comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational England with each trust and technology adoption decisions as units of analysis. Consistent with our research aims, we employed interpretive methods click enquiry, which allows description, interpretation and explanation of a phenomenon rather than comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational of its prevalence.

Adoption is viewed as a process in which organisational members analyse the potential benefits and negative aspects of an innovation on the basis comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational gathered see more. Awareness knowledge—the awareness that an innovation exists and click here of its key properties.

Principles knowledge—information dealing with the functioning principles comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational how tehir innovation works. The above definitions of innovation knowledge may be relatively simple and consistent when applied to technology adoption by individuals, while they become ambiguous when applied to the organisational setting in which the process is complex and contested.

The trusts included in the study sample were diverse in geography, size and type table 1. The trusts were given free reign to use the sum to procure technologies that compxrative help reduce HCAIs awarded in February We collected data from secondary sources to provide a historical dimension to better situate the studied decision-making processes. On average, this equates to 10 hour-long interviews per trust.

Twelve informants were interviewed more than once. Depending on the number and scope of technologies, we conducted between two to five visits per trust. Within each of the trust sites, we purposively sampled a diverse range of informants involved in the technology adoption or comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational, reflecting developmentt perspectives, professional and organisational roles.

Our participants included clinical and non-clinical managers, members of trusts' executive boards, health professionals, staff from estates and facilities and IPC teams comprising: Some IPC teams included comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational pharmacist or dseigns control matrons.

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Interviews explored individuals' perceptions, experiences and views on the technology selection decisions, procurement and implementation comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational. In the first visit, the ongoing decision-making uttility was captured, and in follow-up visits, technology selection outcome and http://keiba-online.info/15/m-61.php experiences were explored.

Field notes were taken during observation of technologies in-use and relevant meetings. Observation was used to familiarise with technologies and context, and triangulate interview data. Data collection at each site continued until all aspects of the decision process had been accounted for by a diverse sample of informants. We analysed data using an integrated approach.

The Qualitative Data Analysis computer software package N-Vivo 8 QSR International was used to systematically code the data and assist analysis, especially in cataloguing and linking concepts and codes. In line with recommendations by qualitative methodologists, 33—35 Yiannis Kyratsis author 1 and Raheelah Ahmad author 2 independently coded all data.

The three authors met to review discrepancies, yheir enhancing internal validity. Summary tables were used to reduce the volume of primary data and to make analytical inferences by comparing and contrasting pairs and groups of cases. Of the 38 organisational technology adoption decisions made during the period of the study, 22 technologies were successfully adopted and implemented, while 12 were discontinued after initial adoption or only partially implemented table 2.

There was no clear outcome within the time frame of the study for four technologies. The nature of technologies is described in detail elsewhere. As illustrated in table 2the same technologies ie, the Hydrogen Peroxide Vapour System or the ATP Hygiene Monitoring System in diverse trusts and at different stages of the innovation process resulted in differential outcomes. Most informants reported that they went through a series of evaluations, choices and actions over time as the adopting trusts principally engaged in cokparative problem-solving exercise.

The process comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational dynamic, iterative and not always linear. The IPC team and some wider staff were involved in adoption decisions.

While the formal executive decision lay with the DIPCs, they were not always the key decision makers across the cases. Trusts variably accessed and prioritised the three types of innovation knowledge in the organisational setting, and these comprised a much broader, multidimensional definition compared with a simpler definition when the potential user is an individual.

They tell using numbers in essays indeed the validity of claims made by commercial suppliers. This included users' experience with the technologies, aesthetics, functionality as well as compatibility with strategic, structural and cultural elements of the trust's context.

Cost compparative effectiveness issues permeated the three types of innovation knowledge. The majority of informants from all trusts noted that no particular technology could be solely or directly attributable to reducing HCAIs, and impact was attributable to ongoing multifaceted approaches.

Those involved in decisions used a wide range of sources to get information on the three types of innovation knowledge table 3. Supplier information was reported as compact and easy to access for practitioners; however, this source was viewed as less credible. Professional networks consistently featured among the top sources for all http://keiba-online.info/2/h-11.php types of innovation knowledge. The comparatvie were used to exchange experiences on the use of the same or similar technologies, spreading information horizontally via networks of peers and local experts.

Type and sources of innovation knowledge used in the technology adoption process per trust.

These indicators show relatively low reliability estimates that shed doubts over their predictive utility. In addition, the authors themselves admit to lacking rigorous construct validity in their construct of planning measures. Preceding Boyd’s article, Pearce, Freeman et al.  Case study research is particularly useful for embedded research designs that employ multi-level analysis (Yin ). Comparative Case Study Designs: Their Utility and Development in Organizational Research. in "The Sage Handbook of Organizational Research Methods" (Buchanan, D., and Bryman, A., Eds.), SAGE, London, UK. [16] Goldberg, C. B., & Allen, D. G. (). Black and White and Read All Over: Race Differences in Reactions to Recruitment Web Sites, Human Resource Management, 47 (2), Comparative Case Study Designs: their utility and development in organizational research. In: BuchananD, BrymanA, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Research Methods. England and Scotland both have their own primary planning legislation which subsequently informs the development planning policy and guidance for each of the regions (Cave et al. ). Table 1 shows the legislation and the national planning policy and guidance which inform the planning policies made by Local Authorities (LA’s).  The comparative case study design of the research sought cases to bring to light the differences and similarities in drivers and barriers to integrating climate change adaptation into planning policies across both Scottish and English local government. Studies such as Eisenack et al. 10 CASE STUDY OF EXTREME PROGRAMMING IN A STAGE–GATE CONTEXT Introduction Methodological Status Case Study Design Rationale Objectives Cases and Units of Analysis Theoretical Frame of Reference Research Questions Planning Methods of Data Collection.  In the rst part of this book, readers will nd useful advice covering all aspects of case study research in chapters that include discussion on case study design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, the reporting of case studies, scaling up case study research, and using case studies; the second part of the book comprises useful, informative, and comprehensive examples of actual case.

Hidden running costs, such as replacing costly bulbs and filters regularly, as well as the practicality of assembling check this out on site, were overlooked.

Important aspects of structural incompatibility only came to light during implementation. The water in the tanks needed to be replaced after each cleaning session, refilled and water heated overnight. This added to the hospital staff workload. The tanks needed to be hardwired for electricity, which meant no manoeuvrability—the initial plan had been to comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational the tanks around the hospital rather than shift dirty and bulky items to the tanks.

The technology though purchased by the trust, resulted in becoming obsolete; the tanks were housed by estates in a storage area on the top floor comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational the hospital and used in a very different way from the original plan. In Trust 8, feedback from chest consultants principal users of the technology resulted in appropriate procurement of computer devices, which were consistent with working practices as well as compliant with infection prevention guidelines: Had we not changed [the newly introduced] flat computer mouse to replace it with one that has got a push scrolling button, the targeted users would not have used it at all; it is highly likely that they would have replaced them with normal computer mouse instead… [Trust 8].

We found variation in the priority given to the type of innovation knowledge across professional groups. Consistently across the trusts, consultant microbiologists, clinical matrons and infection control nurses looked at the same technologies differently and came to divergent decisions regarding the value of specific technologies.

Clinical microbiologists across trusts, looked comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational at peer-reviewed published articles for such information. In contrast, clinical matrons preferred more applied information about technology effectiveness and would discount solely technical accounts, as mine, essay on adolf hitler leadership recommend following quote illustrates: You need to make it very simple to say this is how it works.

A comparative case study of PPP in road infrastructure projects: Spain and Norway Master thesis. Pedro Bustillo Alonso. Preface.  This is called risks identification and it is considered crucial in development of any project (Project management Institute ). Risk allocation.  Figure 8- A sketch of a part of the organizational chart of the Norwegian Public Roads Administration It only shows the departments involved directly in a PPP project. To date, about toll projects have been realized successfully and only one has been declared as bankrupt in The success of the Norwegian road toll systems may be accredited to its organizational framework.  Project administration and integration. Design costs Utilities owners (water, power supply etc.) Total. 0. A Case Study Exploring Organizational Development and Performance Management in the Operational Infrastructure of a Professional Working Organization, Using Academic Constructs. tmppdf.z9f University of Denver.  Research Design & Rationale It is reasonable to assume that, based on the nature of Complex Systems and their interactive relationships, while PWOs may be similar in some organizational aspects, they are distinctly unique in function and operational characteristics from others (Gross & Sayama; Gomez, Fernandez, Granell, & Arenas, ). Comparative Case Study Designs: Their Utility and Development in Organizational Research. in "The Sage Handbook of Organizational Research Methods" (Buchanan, D., and Bryman, A., Eds.), SAGE, London, UK. [16] Goldberg, C. B., & Allen, D. G. (). Black and White and Read All Over: Race Differences in Reactions to Recruitment Web Sites, Human Resource Management, 47 (2), Eastern Michigan University. [email protected] Comparative Case Study: Economic Development and Re-Imaging Campaigns of Anchorage, Atlanta, Camden, Detroit and Greensboro. Introduction. Review of Literature. Primary Objectives. Program. Development Counselors International Recommendations and First Year Activities. First Step in PR Program: Upfront Research. These indicators show relatively low reliability estimates that shed doubts over their predictive utility. In addition, the authors themselves admit to lacking rigorous construct validity in their construct of planning measures. Preceding Boyd’s article, Pearce, Freeman et al.  Case study research is particularly useful for embedded research designs that employ multi-level analysis (Yin ).

You need both evidence from [peer review] papers can online writing editor recommend the practicality of using the comparative case study designs their utility and development in organizational [in the local context]. It's very important [IPC Nurse]. This attitude was mirrored across professional groups, though was more pronounced in accounts by respondents from the medical profession.

We found the technology adoption process to be highly dynamic and iterative. Adoption decisions entailed the acquisition and processing of new knowledge by organisational members who sought to reduce uncertainty about an innovation.

Trying to find solutions to problems was the key motivator for sourcing evidence across the cases. Empirical and experiential types of knowing were also widely used to judge the effectiveness and appropriateness of the technologies in the local setting but were often assessed later in the process. Suppliers responded to preferences for theoretical knowledge by a highly professionalised user group.

Professional networks were widely used and comprised practice-based peer-mediated information about the innovations' relevance to the local setting. The priority given to the three types of innovation http://keiba-online.info/15/f-58.php depended on:

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